Divorce Procedures

Support Calculators (These calculators are for informational purposes.  Please consult an attorney for advice on your specific situation)

Sole Child Support (DC Form 637)
Shared Custody Support (DC Form 640)
Split Custody Support (DC Form 638)

Spousal Support

 

Each party involved in a divorce matter is strongly encouraged to consult with an attorney so that the legal effects of the proceedings may be fully explained. While it is your right to proceed without an attorney, if you do so, you may forever, unknowingly waive your rights to custody or visitation, child or spousal support, equitable distribution of property, and other legal claims arising out of your marriage. The law clerks, clerk’s office and judicial staff are not permitted to give legal advice. In addition, the court and clerk’s office do not provide forms to file a divorce action (Bill of Complaint) or Final Divorce Decrees.

SEE ALSO: Do-It-Yourself Divorce, Contested Divorce

STEP ONE:

In order for you to obtain a divorce in Virginia, either you or your spouse must be a resident of the Commonwealth of Virginia for at least six months prior to filing suit.

In your Complaint for divorce you must allege specific grounds upon which a divorce may be granted. The two most common situations or grounds for no-fault divorces are a six-month separation or a one-year separation.

You are eligible for a six-month divorce only if you have entered into a separation agreement and there are no minor children either born of the parties, born of either party and adopted by the other or adopted by both parties. All of these facts must be stated in the Complaint

You and your spouse must have been separated for the required amount of time prior to filing your suit for a no fault divorce. This separation period must also be clearly alleged in your Complaint. You may NOT file your documents before the appropriate separation period has expired or your case could be dismissed. If the case is dismissed you will have to file for divorce again and pay another filing fee.

You can also file several types of fault divorces, which are treated differently than no-fault divorces.

In addition to stating the grounds and residency requirements, the Complaint must also include the following allegations:

  • current residences of both parties
  • the date and place of marriage
  • the names of all minor children born or adopted into the marriage
  • a statement that both parties are over eighteen (18) years of age
  • a statement of each party’s military status
  • each party social security number and dates of birth and each child’s social security number and dates of birth shall be included using the Addendum For Protected Identifying Information “Confidential Form (Form CC-1426 is available in the Clerk’s Office or can be accessed through the Virginia Judicial Website at: http://www.courts.state.va.us/forms/circuit/civil.html)

STEP TWO: PREPARING & FILING YOUR COMPLAINT

1. Submit an original and one copy of your typed Complaint. A VS-4 Form shall be submitted at the time of the entry of the Final Decree of Divorce and NOT at the time of filing. The VS-4 is a statistical form that is required for all divorce filings before the divorce can be concluded. It must be completed properly in black ink (The VS-4 Form may be obtained from the Clerk’s Office)

2. INITIAL FEES:

  • $91.00 filing fee
  • $12.00 Sheriff fee, if applicable to serve the Complaint if the Defendant lives in Virginia.
  • $21.00 filing fee to record the resumed Maiden Name

All filing fees and Sheriff Service Fees are paid by cash, certified check or money order made payable to the Clerk of the Circuit Court.

Please note: If the Defendant does not live in Virginia, you will need to contact the Sheriff’s Department of the county in which your spouse resides in order to find out local regulations for service.

3. Your case will be given a Civil Number as soon as it is filed. This is the number by which the Court references your case and it must appear on all documents regarding your divorce.

STEP THREE: SERVING THE DEFENDANT WITH THE COMPLAINT

After you file the Complaint you must determine how the Defendant will be served with the Complaint. The Complaint may be served by methods specified pursuant to §8.01-296 by a Sheriff or person authorized to serve process in accordance with §8.01-293. If service is to be by Sheriff or Private Process Server, you must request the Clerk to prepare a Summons. If you arranged for this service, the Sheriff or Private Process Server will receive a Summons and a copy of the Complaint to serve on the Defendant.

The Defendant may also accept legal service of the Complaint by signing a notarized statement that he/she has received a copy of the Complaint. This may be done before any Notary Public or Deputy Clerk in the Clerk’s Office. Once they have been served, the Defendant has 21 days to respond to the Complaint. The Defendant may also accept service by checking the appropriate box on the “Acceptance/Waiver of Service of Process and Waiver of Future Service of Process and Notice” – Form CC-1406. This form is available in the Clerk’s Office or can be accessed through the Web Site of the Virginia’s Judicial System at:
http://www.courts.state.va.us/forms/circuit/civil.html

STEP FOUR- PROCEEDING WITH DIVORCE:

UNCONTESTED DIVORCES: a Judge shall hear All uncontested cases. These are matters where all property, custody, child support and spousal support rights are resolved, and neither party is going to put on any fault grounds for divorce, and where neither party is going to put on any evidence of the facts and circumstances leading to the dissolution of the marriage.

Restoration of Former Name – §20-121.4: If one of the parties requests in the Complaint to resume her maiden name or former name an additional fee for recording of a name change is required. Upon entry of a final decree of divorce from the bond of matrimony the court shall, on motion of a party who changed her name by reason of the marriage, restore the party’s former name or maiden name by separate order meeting the requirements of §8.01-217. Upon entry of the Name Change Order – this order will be spread upon the Land Records as required.

CONTESTED DIVORCES: a Commissioner in Chancery will handle All contested divorces. If there are any property rights to be resolved, and the parties desire to put on evidence of facts and circumstances leading to the dissolution of the marriage, the case will still be heard by a Commissioner along with the grounds for divorce.

COMMISSIONER’S HEARING
For the Court to assign a Commissioner in Chancery to hear your case, you must submit a Decree of Reference endorsed by both parties. The Commissioner is a local attorney appointed by the Court to hear the evidence in the divorce case. The Complainant pays the commissioner’s fee, which varies. This Commissioner reports upon the matter to the Court and makes a recommendation as to whether or not a divorce should be granted. You may submit the Decree of Reference to the Court after the Defendant has filed an answer to the Complaint.

Seven to ten days after filing the Decree of Reference, you must call (757) 664-4387 to receive the name and phone number of the Commissioner who has been appointed; you must contact him to arrange a time for your hearing. After the hearing date is set, you must serve the Defendant with a Notice of Commissioner’s hearing stating the date, time and place of the hearing in accordance with §8.01-296. (You do not have to do this if the Defendant has waived notice.) Should the defendant not be given sufficient notice, you may be required to reschedule your hearing in order to give him/her enough time to prepare.

You must be prepared to present evidence to support every allegation in your Complaint. You must also bring a witness to corroborate your testimony. Many Commissioners question you and your witness to elicit testimony. Some Commissioners may require you to present all of the evidence and to question the witness yourself.

After the hearing, the Commissioner has 30 days to submit his report to the Court. The Commissioner will notify you and the Court once the report has been filed. You will receive a copy of this report.

You may prepare and file your Final Decree of Divorce once you receive the Commissioner’s Report. This Decree must re-allege all the basic information stated in the Complaint and order that the Divorce is granted in accordance with the Commissioner’s recommendations. You must sign the Final Decree of Divorce and submit it to the Court for entry by a Judge. If the Defendant executed a waiver, he/she does not need to endorse the Final Decree. If the Defendant refuses to sign the Decree, you will have to serve him/her with notice to appear in Court on a Motions Day to enter the Final Decree. There is a special Motions Day procedure, which must be followed.

HEARING BEFORE A JUDGE
If all issues are uncontested, the Court will hear evidence. At the time of the hearing you must submit the original proposed Final Decree of Divorce and a copy of any Property Settlement Agreement the parties may have executed. The Decree must contain the endorsement of each party who is legally entitled to notice of the hearing and who will not be appearing at the hearing, unless you will be serving the notice of the date and time of the hearing on your spouse. The original of any Property Settlement Agreement should be presented to the Court at the hearing.

The hearing before the Judge lasts approximately fifteen minutes. You must be prepared to present evidence to support every allegation in your Complaint through the testimony of yourself and a corroborating witness. You must bring the witness with you at the time of the hearing; it is your responsibility to make certain that your witness can be present on the hearing date. The corroborating witness should have direct knowledge of the matters to which he or she will testify. The witness knowledge must be based on something more than the information you give the witness in preparation for the hearing. The presiding Judge cannot serve as an attorney, and the moving party must be prepared to ask the relevant questions.

If all legal requirements have been satisfied the Judge will generally enter the Final Decree of Divorce at the hearing.

Once a Judge has signed your Final Decree of Divorce, the Complainant will receive a certified copy from the Court. If you would like to call and check on the status of a case, call the Civil Division at: (757) 664-4387.

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